Maghreb is an Arabic word used to designate the western region of north Africa. A temperate climate influenced by the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas mountains predominates, providing conditions suitable for agriculture. The region has been a breadbasket of successive empires, including those of Carthage, Rome, the Fatimids, and the Ottomans.
Blessed with one of the most temperate climates on Earth, the islands of Hawaii have seen an explosive growth in population during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
The advent of modern warfare is attributable to the discovery of gunpowder and the industrial zeal with which it was adopted by military powers. Artillery changed everything. Masonry curtain walls that had stood for centuries against slings and arrows, proved to be little more than cannon-fodder in the age of early modern warfare. The result of this pressure was the star fort, or trace italienne. The advantages of this distinctive geometric configuration were many, and made star forts the fortification of choice throughout the world for many years.